Peter Shirley has a small book, called Raytracing in one weekend which is exactly as the title says: implementing a ray tracer in one weekend. And yes, you can do it in one weekend. And do it in whatever language you choose. They book is really good as a introduction to ray tracing and I strongly recommend it.
I am not commenting here about language design, just performance.
OK, you can see my implementation in action online here. The code is available on my weekend-raytrace repository.
The code is designed in a way that allows you to understand all the steps: From simply writing to an HTML step, to the final image: 16 steps in total, clearly separated.